Published online 16 July Nature doi Matt Kaplan. The chemical make-up of a snake's venom varies enormously depending on where the snake lives and how old it is.
That's the conclusion of scientists who claim to have made the first detailed comparison between individual venom protein profiles in two geographically isolated populations of the same snake — the deadly lancehead pitviper, Bothrops asper. Doctors working in areas with venomous snakes have long known that even a single species' venom does not always generate the same symptoms in bite victims. They are also aware that although antivenoms can be a valuable aid in treating snakebite patients, they are not always effective.
Antivenoms are created by exposing animals such as sheep and horses to tiny amounts of a specific venom that has been milked from a snake.
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The antibodies that these animals generate are later collected and used to formulate a serum that can be injected into people who have been bitten by the snake in question. The antibodies in the serum bind to the toxic components of the venom, deactivating them and preventing further damage.
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But there are huge differences between the chemical profiles of venoms from different species of snake — so much so that failed treatments are often blamed on use of antivenom for the wrong snake. However, the confirmation that snake-venom chemistry varies within species suggests that this might not always be the case.
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Juan Calvete of the Biomedical Institute of Valencia, Spain, and his colleagues collected 26 adult and more than 40 juvenile pitvipers from populations found in the Pacific and Caribbean regions of Costa Rica. The two regions are divided by mountains, and snake populations on either side are thought to have been isolated from one another for at least 5 million years.
Pavel Sudoplatov and Nahum Eitingon approved special equipment i. In addition to human experimentation, Mairanovsky personally executed people with poisons, under the supervision of Sudoplatov. The New York Times reported that Garry Kasparov , the chess champion and Putin opponent, drinks bottled water and eats prepared meals carried by his bodyguards.
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